Python for Beginners: A Step-by-Step Learning Journey

Python for Beginners: A Step-by-Step Learning Journey is an article featured on the upGrad Blog, a platform offering a wide range of programs, courses, and resources for learning. Aimed at beginners, the blog provides project ideas and topics in fields such as Python, MBA HR, software development, IoT, and computer science. In addition, it offers valuable information on job-oriented short-term courses, highest paying jobs in India, career options after B.Com, and final year project ideas. Popular posts on the blog cover topics like the difference between lists and tuples, artificial intelligence salary in India, career options after BBA, and AWS salary in India. Moreover, the blog also provides opportunities for free courses in subjects such as marketing, data science, machine learning, and management, among others. Committed to supporting learners in their career growth, the blog offers resources for studying in the USA and Canada, as well as opportunities for 1-on-1 career counseling. With this comprehensive selection of resources, the upGrad Blog serves as an essential platform for individuals looking to embark on their coding journey.

Python for Beginners: A Step-by-Step Learning Journey

Getting Started with Python

Python is a versatile and high-level programming language that is widely used for various purposes such as web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, and more. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced programmer, learning Python is a valuable skill to have in today’s competitive job market. In this comprehensive guide, we will take you through the basics of Python programming and help you get started on your journey towards becoming a proficient Python developer.

Installing Python

Before you can start coding in Python, you need to install it on your system. Python is free and open-source, which means you can download and install it without any cost. The official Python website ( provides installation packages for different operating systems including Windows, macOS, and Linux. Simply navigate to the website, download the appropriate package for your system, and run the installer. Once the installation is complete, you can access Python from the command line or by using an Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

Choosing an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

An Integrated Development Environment, or IDE, is a software application that provides a user-friendly interface to write, edit, and run your Python code. There are several popular Python IDEs available including PyCharm, Visual Studio Code, Jupyter Notebook, and IDLE (which comes bundled with the Python installation). Each IDE has its own set of features and advantages, so it’s important to choose one that suits your requirements and preferences. For beginners, IDLE is a good choice as it provides a simple and straightforward interface for writing and executing Python code.

Writing Your First Python Program

Once you have Python installed and an IDE set up, it’s time to write your first Python program. In Python, a program is simply a set of instructions that are executed by the computer. A program can perform various tasks such as printing output, doing calculations, or manipulating data. To write a Python program, you need to understand the basic syntax and rules of the language. Python syntax is known for its simplicity and readability, making it easy for beginners to grasp. Let’s look at an example of a simple Python program:

# This is a comment in Python print("Hello, World!") 

In this program, we use the print() function to display the text “Hello, World!” on the console. The # symbol is used to indicate a comment in Python. Comments are ignored by the Python interpreter and are used to add notes or explanations to the code. To run the program, simply save it with a .py extension (e.g. and execute it from the command line or IDE.

Understanding Python Syntax

Python has a clean and easily understandable syntax, which contributes to its popularity among beginners and experienced programmers alike. The basic building blocks of Python code are statements, expressions, and variables. A statement is a line of code that performs an action, such as assigning a value to a variable or calling a function. An expression is a combination of values, variables, and operators that can be evaluated to produce a result. Variables are used to store and manipulate data in Python.

Python is a dynamically typed language, which means you don’t need to declare the type of a variable explicitly. The type of a variable is determined at runtime based on the value assigned to it. For example, you can assign an integer value to a variable and later assign a string value to the same variable without any issues. This flexibility makes Python a great language for prototyping and quick development.

Python Variables and Data Types

Variables are used to store and manipulate data in Python. In Python, a variable is created by assigning a value to it using the assignment operator (=). Variable names can be composed of letters (both uppercase and lowercase), digits, and underscores. However, they cannot start with a digit.

Declaring Variables

To declare a variable in Python, you simply assign a value to it. For example:

name = "John" age = 30 

In this example, the variable name is assigned the value “John” and the variable age is assigned the value 30. Python automatically determines the appropriate data type based on the assigned value.

Numeric Data Types

Python supports various numeric data types, including integers, floating-point numbers, and complex numbers. Integers are whole numbers without any decimal points, while floating-point numbers have decimal points. Complex numbers are a combination of a real part and an imaginary part.

x = 10 # integer y = 3.14 # floating-point number z = 2 + 3j # complex number 

String Data Type

Strings are sequences of characters enclosed in either single quotes (') or double quotes ("). Python treats single and double quotes interchangeably.

name = "Alice" message = 'Hello, World!' 

Boolean Data Type

Boolean data types represent the truth values True and False. They are used in conditional statements and logical operations.

is_active = True is_valid = False 

Type Conversion

Python provides built-in functions to convert variables from one data type to another. This is known as type conversion or typecasting. You can convert numeric values to strings and vice versa, convert strings to integers or floating-point numbers, and perform other type conversions as required.

age = 30 age_str = str(age) # convert age to a string price = "10.99" price_float = float(price) # convert price to a floating-point number 

In this section, we have covered the basics of Python variables and data types. Understanding how to declare variables and the different data types available in Python is essential for writing effective and efficient programs.

Python Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values in Python. Python provides a wide range of operators, including arithmetic operators, assignment operators, comparison operators, logical operators, and identity and membership operators.

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and more.

x = 10 y = 3 addition = x + y # Addition subtraction = x - y # Subtraction multiplication = x * y # Multiplication division = x / y # Division modulus = x % y # Modulus (remainder after division) exponentiation = x ** y # Exponentiation (x raised to the power of y) floor_division = x // y # Floor division (division without the remainder) 

Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables. They are a combination of the assignment operator (=) and another arithmetic operator.

x = 10 x += 5 # Equivalent to x = x + 5 x -= 3 # Equivalent to x = x - 3 x *= 2 # Equivalent to x = x * 2 x /= 4 # Equivalent to x = x / 4 

Comparison Operators

Comparison operators are used to compare two values and return the result as either True or False.

x = 10 y = 5 greater_than = x > y # Greater than less_than = x